Jin Xin, major in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, cattle age of 8 years. Visited a number of cattle farms, has rich practical experience in dairy farm production, and is familiar with SOP processes related to dairy cow nutrition and feeding. Now he is the technical specialist of Beijing Yahe Nutrition High tech Co., Ltd.
Specialized fields: TMR monitoring, dairy farm feeding management, dairy farm standardization management
Breast assessment is mainly divided into three systems, namely: lactation system, anterior breast and posterior breast.
1. Lactation system: This system includes 3 descriptive traits and 3 defective traits.
1.1.1 breast depth:
Refers to the distance from the bottom of the cow's breast to the hock joint. If the breast is tilted, the distance from the lowest point to the hock joint. For the first-born cow, the distance from the bottom of the breast to the hock joint is 12cm, which is the best, the score is 5 points; the distance of 18cm, and the score is 8 points. For cows with three or more calves, the bottom of the breast is 12cm above, and the score is 8 points. The distance to the hock is 5cm and the score is 5 points.
Table 1 Criteria and functional scores, weighted scores of breast depth
By observing and touching the breast tissue of the cow, the scores are made based on glandular tissue and connective tissue composition. The gland tissue breast is soft and delicate, full of elasticity. After milking, the breast shrinks; while the breast with a lot of connective tissue is the opposite, which is the meat breast.
1.1.2 breast texture
Table 2 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores of breast texture
1.1.3 central suspensory ligament
Mainly based on the depth of the septal longitudinal groove at the bottom of the breast as a measurement standard, a cow’s breast groove is 5cm deep; from the back, the breast is obviously divided into left and right parts; this is a very strong individual, and the score is 8. If it is 0.6cm, the score is 2.
Table 3 Standard and functional scores and weighted scores of the central suspensory ligament of breast
1.2 defect character
A. The breast hangs forward, and the bottom of the breast leans forward.
B. The breast hangs back, and the bottom of the breast is inclined backward.
C. Poor breast shape: refers to the uneven shape of the breast as a whole, such as bag breasts.
2. Front breast
This system has 3 identification statuses, 3 traits of the lactation system are also in scoring, and it has 7 defect traits.
2.1.1 anterior breast attachment
Look from the side of the cow's body, and touch to see the degree of attachment of the front breast to the abdominal wall of the body drive and make the score.
Table 1 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores of anterior breast attachment
2.1.2 front nipple position
Previously, the nipple is rated on the position of the breast.
Table 1 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores of the anterior nipple position
2.1.3 front nipple length
The length of the previous nipple is scored
Table 1 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores of the anterior nipple length score
2. 2 The defect shape is:
A. Front breast enlargement: the front breast is loosely attached and protrudes forward.
B. Anterior breast hypertrophy: The anterior breast is enlarged from left to right.
C. Left and right imbalance: the size of the left and right breast areas is inconsistent.
D. Short anterior breast: The anterior breast does not have enough length.
E. The front breast is not vertical.
F. The nipple is attached to the front nipple: There is a small nipple above the nipple.
G. There is a blind breast area in the front breast: a non-breast inflammatory blind breast area.
3. Rear breast
This system identified three traits, three traits in the lactation system are in the score, and it six defective traits.
3.1.1 posterior breast attachment height
It is the distance between the uppermost margin of the posterior breast mammary gland and the base of the vulva.
Table 1 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores of the posterior breast attachment height
3. 1. 2. posterior breast attachment width
Refers to the width of the uppermost margin of the posterior breast mammary gland tissue between the posterior stalls.
Table 1 Standard and functional scores and weighted scores of the posterior breast attachment width score
3. 1.3. nipple position
Make the position of posterior nipple on the breast as evaluated.
Table 1 Standard and functional scores, weighted scores for nipple position
3.2. Defect characteristics:
B. Short posterior nipple.
C. The posterior nipple is not vertical.
D. Nipple position is backward: the posterior nipple position is behind.
E. There is a nipple on the posterior nipple: a small nipple grows on the posterior nipple.
F. There is a blind breast area in the posterior breast: necrosis of the breast area caused by non-mastitis reason.